Goliath has a variety of attacks where you will need to keep your distance. He will wind up his arm and punch the ground launching large rock spikes. When he jumps slide under him to avoid the shock wave when he lands. He also punches the ceiling which drop debris. When he takes long strides towards you, there is enough room between his legs to crouch under. After he loses enough health he will crouch and appear vulnerable, but it is a trap. He will grab and throw you across the room. He is weak to slashing attacks.
After defeating Goliath, go to the next room where you will encounter Albus. He will give you the Dominus Anger glyph.