RPG is the abbreviation of Role-Playing Game.
A very common but inaccurate definition of role-playing video games is the following:
- A role-playing video game is a game where the player character earns experience points.
A more accurate definition is the following:
- A role-playing video game is a game where all the following aspects are present:
- 1. Dialogue is an essential part of the game, and the characters have to talk and interact with non-evil characters to proceed in the adventure;
- 2. There are permanent upgrades, in the form of enhancements of the various attributes of the characters (attack, strength, magic, etc.);
- 3. There is freedom of exploration, all the areas are connected by an "overworld", and areas that have been previously cleared can usually be re-visited; in other words, the game is non-linear.
Note that most role-playing games feature an in-game map of the large overworld. Many gamers do not distinguish between the map of the overworld and the overworld itself, and refer to the latter using the word for the former.
The two definitions do not overlap.
According to the second definition, experience points alone are not sufficient to classify a game as role-playing game. Experience points are just one of the possible permanent upgrades, and some role-playing games do not feature them at all. Some games follow perfectly the second definition (dialogues, permanent upgrades, non-linear exploration), but they feature no experience points. A notable example is the Legend of Zelda series.
Some games do feature experience points, but absolutely nothing of the three points in the second definition. A notable example is Hybrid Heaven, that would be better classified as action game.
In the original pen-and-paper Dungeons & Dragons (as well as in the Gold Box games), the party can earn experience when they find treasures, too. Earning experience and levels translates into more health points and more skills, but it is very uncommon to raise the numeric attributes/statistics. The many Legends of Zelda remove the "experience/level" middle-man: when Link finds a treasure, it translates directly to health points (heart containers) or skills (special items); upgrades to the hero's attack and defense are very few, too. From this observation, a further criteria can be added:
- If a video game has less role-playing elements than The Legend of Zelda series, it is not a role-playing game.
- If a video game has as many role-playing elements as The Legend of Zelda series, endless discussions will follow.
- If a video game has more role-playing elements than The Legend of Zelda series, it is a role-playing game.
Role-playing video games can be divided into two main groups:
- American-style or computer role-playing games, that focus more on character upgrading and non-linear exploration (n.2 and n.3 in the definition above).
- Japanese-style or console role-playing games, that focus more on plot and dialogues (n.1 in the definition above).
Another subdivision is the following:
- Turn-based role-playing games, where battles are triggered periodically and are fought on a separate screen, interrupting the exploration of the overworld or dungeon.
- Action-based role-playing games, where battles happen in the same field the characters are exploring.
In general, action-based role-playing games require more advanced programming, and therefore they are more recent than turn-based role-playing games.
A further subdivision is about the immersion in the game world:
- Dungeon crawls are set inside a huge, maze-like dungeon. The earliest role-playing games (1975 PLATO) were of this kind.
- Open worlds feature a world surface, towns, shops, and townsfolk the player can interact with. That is, an immersive fantasy world (occasionally science fiction). The earliest example is probably Ultima I: The First Age of Darkness (1981).
|Open worlds||Western: Ultima
Japanese: Dragon Quest, Final Fantasy
|Western: Baldur's Gate |
Japanese: Seiken Densetsu
|Dungeon crawls||Western: Wizardry
Japanese: Mystery Dungeon
|Western: Dungeon Master |
Japanese: Castlevania: Symphony of the Night
Further sub-genres incude:
- Roguelike games, where the layout of dungeons is randomly generated; they are a sub-group of turn-based dungeon crawls.
- Strategy role-playing games or tactical role-playing games, where the focus is on long battles, and often one of the three defining points of role-playing games is missing; they could be seen as "chess with more realism"; they are usually turn-based.
- Pokemon-like games, where the player character neither gets upgrades nor fights, whereas a group of creatures controlled by the character fights all the battles and receives upgrades; the main character is a tamer or breeder of other creatures; they are a sub-group of consolle turn-based role-playing games.
The earliest role-playing video games were developed as early as 1975. They had two main sources of inspiration. One was the first pen-&-paper role-playing game, Dungeons & Dragons, released the previous year, in 1974. The second source of inspiration was The Lord of the Rings by John R. R. Tolkien. Nevertheless, the first official role-playing games based on said two franchises were released about 15 years later (see also Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Forgotten Realms and The Lord of the Rings).
The earliest Japanese role-playing games were released in 1984: The Black Onyx (inspired by Wizardry), Hydlide (inspired by Ultima) and Dragon Slayer. They actually were more of prototypes, and lacked many of the conventions and mechanics that modern players are used to; the sequels are far better examples of role-playing games. Few years later, the Dragon Quest series began, and it became the reference for role-playing in Japan. It was localized for the Western audience, but there its popularity was superseded by Final Fantasy.
This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
Pages in category "RPG"
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- A.I.M. 2: Clan Wars
- Abandoned Places: A Time for Heroes
- Adventure Bar Story
- Adventure Time: Finn & Jake Investigations
- Adventure Time: The Secret of the Nameless Kingdom
- AdventureQuest Worlds
- Adventures to Go!
- Aidyn Chronicles: The First Mage
- Akalabeth: World of Doom
- Akuma-kun: Makai no Wana
- Albert Odyssey: Legend of Eldean
- Alien Syndrome (2007)
- The Alliance Alive
- Ancient Domains of Mystery
- Angels Online
- Anvil of Dawn
- Arcania: Gothic 4
- Arx Fatalis
- Ashen Empires
- Asheron's Call
- Asheron's Call: Throne of Destiny
- Aspic Special
- Aspic: Majaou no Noroi
- Assassin's Creed: Identity
- Atelier Ayesha: The Alchemist of Dusk
- Atelier Elie: The Alchemist of Salburg 2
- Atelier Escha & Logy: Alchemists of the Dusk Sky
- Atelier Firis: The Alchemist and the Mysterious Journey
- Atelier Lulua: The Scion of Arland
- Atelier Lydie & Suelle: The Alchemists and the Mysterious Paintings
- Atelier Marie Remake: The Alchemist of Salburg
- Atelier Marie: The Alchemist of Salburg
- Atelier Meruru: The Apprentice of Arland
- Atelier Rorona: The Alchemist of Arland
- Atelier Ryza 2: Lost Legends & the Secret Fairy
- Atelier Ryza 3: Alchemist of the End & the Secret Key
- Atelier Ryza: Ever Darkness & the Secret Hideout
- Atelier Shallie: Alchemists of the Dusk Sea
- Atelier Sophie 2: The Alchemist of the Mysterious Dream
- Atelier Sophie: The Alchemist of the Mysterious Book
- Atelier Totori: The Adventurer of Arland
- Atlantica Online
- Bahamut Lagoon
- Baldur's Gate
- Baldur's Gate II: Shadows of Amn
- Baldur's Gate II: Throne of Bhaal
- Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance
- Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance II
- The Bard's Tale II: The Destiny Knight
- The Bard's Tale
- Baseball Superstars II Pro
- Baten Kaitos I & II HD Remaster
- Baten Kaitos Origins
- Baten Kaitos: Eternal Wings and the Lost Ocean
- Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII
- Benkei Gaiden
- Biomotor Unitron
- Bionicle: Maze of Shadows
- Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon: Another Story
- The Black Onyx
- Blade Dancer: Lineage of Light
- Blue Dragon
- Body Inspection in Belloncho
- Boktai: The Sun is in Your Hand
- Borderlands 2
- Borderlands 3
- Borderlands: The Pre-Sequel!
- Bravely Default
- Bravely Default II
- Bravely Second: End Layer
- Breath of Fire
- Breath of Fire II
- Breath of Fire III
- Breath of Fire IV
- Cabal Online
- The Caligula Effect
- The Caligula Effect: Overdose
- Castlevania II: Simon's Quest
- Castlevania: Symphony of the Night
- Chikyuu Senshi Rayieza
- Children of Mana
- Chocobo's Mystery Dungeon: Every Buddy!
- Chrono Cross
- Chrono Trigger
- CIMA: The Enemy
- Citizens of Earth
- City of Heroes
- Cleopatra no Mahou
- Code Geass: Hangyaku no Lelouch
- Code of Princess
- Code of Princess EX
- The Complete Ultima VII
- Conception II: Children of the Seven Stars
- Cosmic Fantasy 2
- Cosmic Fantasy 3: Bouken Shounen Rei
- Cosmic Fantasy 4: Ginga Shounen Densetsu - Gekitou-hen
- Cosmic Fantasy 4: Ginga Shounen Densetsu - Totsunyuu-hen
- Cosmic Fantasy Collection
- Cosmic Fantasy: Bouken Shounen Yuu
- Cosmo Police Galivan (Famicom)
- Costume Quest
- Courageous Perseus
- Crimson Shroud
- Crusaders of Might and Magic
- Curse of the Azure Bonds
- Custom Robo Arena
- Cyberpunk 2077
- Dark and Light
- Dark Arms: Beast Buster 1999
- Dark Law: Meaning of Death
- Dark Souls
- The Dark Spire
- Dark Sun: Shattered Lands
- Darksiders Genesis
- Death Bringer - The Knight Of Darkness
- Deep Dungeon II: Yuushi no Monshou
- Deep Dungeon III: Yuushi heno Tabi
- Deep Dungeon: Madou Senki
- The Denpa Men: They Came By Wave
- Destiny of an Emperor
- Deus Ex
- Deus Ex: Human Revolution
- Digimon World 2
- Digimon World DS
- Digimon World: Dawn and Dusk
- Digimon World: Next Order
- Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei
- Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII
- Disney Three Kingdoms
- Disney's Toontown Online
- Divine Souls
- Dokapon Journey
- Dokapon Kingdom
- Doom & Destiny
- Doom RPG
- Double Dungeons
- Draconius GO
- Dragon Age II
- Dragon Age: Inquisition
- Dragon Age: Origins
- Dragon Ball 3: Gokuuden
- Dragon Ball Xenoverse
- Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2
- Dragon Ball Z Gaiden: Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku
- Dragon Ball Z II: Gekishin Frieza!!
- Dragon Ball Z III: Ressen Jinzou Ningen
- Dragon Ball Z: Attack of the Saiyans
- Dragon Ball Z: Buu's Fury
- Dragon Ball Z: Goku Gekitouden
- Dragon Ball Z: Goku Hishouden
- Dragon Ball Z: Harukanaru Densetsu
- Dragon Ball Z: Kyoushuu! Saiyajin
- Dragon Ball Z: Super Goku Den: Kakusei Hen
- Dragon Ball Z: Super Goku Den: Totsugeki Hen
- Dragon Ball Z: Super Saiya Densetsu
- Dragon Ball: Fusions
- Dragon Quest
- Dragon Quest Characters: Torneko no Daibouken 3: Fushigi no Dungeon
- Dragon Quest I.II
- Dragon Quest II
- Dragon Quest III
- Dragon Quest IX: Sentinels of the Starry Skies
- Dragon Quest Monsters: Caravan Heart
- Dragon Quest Monsters: Joker
- Dragon Quest Monsters: The Dark Prince
- Dragon Quest of the Stars
- Dragon Quest Swords: The Masked Queen and the Tower of Mirrors
- Dragon Quest Treasures
- Dragon Quest V: Hand of the Heavenly Bride
- Dragon Quest VI: Realms of Revelation
- Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King
- Dragon Quest XI: Echoes of an Elusive Age
- Dragon Quest: Shounen Yangus to Fushigi no Dungeon
- Dragon Slayer IV Drasle Family
- Dragon Slayer Jr: Romancia
- Dragon Slayer: The Legend of Heroes
- Dragon Slayer: The Legend of Heroes II
- Dragon Warrior
- Dragon Warrior I & II
- Dragon Warrior II